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  • 渣浆泵应用行业煤炭的生存发展
  • 作者:更新时间:2022-05-25 15:29:56 浏览次数:
    煤炭行业是渣浆泵应用行业中重要的一块市场,但是随着国度去产能消库存政策的施行,煤炭企业的生存压力日趋加大,今天我们就谈谈和渣浆泵行业息息相关的煤炭行业的生存和开展。

    煤炭属于不可再生资源,煤炭企业是典型的不可再生资源型企业,在其资源干涸后,如何生存和开展?这是人们普遍关注的一个问题,也是一个世界性的难题。中国的大型煤炭企业还具有与普通企业不同的特性,多为方案经济时期树立的国有企业,随着市场经济变革的深化开展,同时要完成从方案经济向市场经济的转变。因而,企业的转型面临产业转型和体制转换的双重艰难,研讨面临资源干涸的大型国有煤炭企业转型具有重要的理想意义。

    一、大型国有煤炭企业转型存在的艰难和问题

    由于大型国有煤炭企业同时面临着资源危机及国企变革的双重压力,其转型道路必定存在着许多的艰难和问题,其转型必定是一个非常艰巨而又迂回的过程。

    国有大型煤炭企业多数开采时间较长,历史包袱重。一个特性就是离退休人员较多,还存在一大批工伤、工残、职业病患者及因工死亡职工家眷等抚恤人员,企业办社会担负非常繁重。

    大型国有煤炭企业大多是早期方案经济时期树立的、具有较长时间的方案经济背景,方案经济的痕迹深,长期以来习气于国有企业的运营机制和管理制度。职工观念比拟落后,思想观念转变迟缓,变革的顺应性不强。

    二、大型国有煤炭企业转型的内容和途径

    1、转型的内容

    (1)产业转型。从大致上来说,产业构造转型包括两种方式:一种是经过支柱产业的开展带动相关产业,从纵向延长产业链条,开展继续产业;另一种是跳出原产业的范畴,另辟蹊径,从横向选择替代产业。企业应依据对原资源产业所依赖的水平及其干涸的速度等综合思索,选择转型的方式。依赖性大、干涸速度慢,普通选择第一种方式;反之,则选择后一种方式。也能够两种同时选择,但要有偏重、有先后,做到有序推进。

    (2)体制转型。树立“产权明晰、权责明白、政企分开、管文科学”的现代企业制度是国企变革的必然选择,也是资源型企业改制的必然选择。一切制意义上的转型是以产权制度和用工制度为重点的企业变革。经过采取靠大联强、技术协作、破产兼并、资产重组,以至大胆引进民间资本和民营机制等运作方式,推进产权制度变革,全面转换运营机制。将改制与企业的产业战略开展规划相分离,以资本重组和盘活存量为打破口,从非支柱产业中有序退出,使国有资本逐渐向支柱产业集中,这是国有煤炭企业转型的一条有效途经。

    (3)管理制度创新。优越的管理制度是企业组织活动合理化、有效化的基本前提。关于资源型的企业,要走正轨化、现代化和可持续开展的道路,必需增强企业内部的管理制度创新。企业变革和增强管理是两个不可或缺的轮子,企业产业开展和变革的成果最终必需由管理创新加以稳固。管理创新的中心内容主要是创立人力资源、消费本钱、产质量量、财务、技术、产品营销和平安消费等全面的科学化、系统化管理制度,从而发挥内部资源配置的最大效益化。

    (4)职工安顿。职工安顿是大多数大型国有煤炭企业当前遇到的首要问题,历史越长久,范围越大,艰难也越大,特别是在企业转型时期,不可防止有大批职工需求转岗、分流、安顿,以至下岗,所以企业无论产业构造调整也好,停止变革改制也艰,必需稳妥推进,同时树立起一个良性的职工就业机制,认真做好职工安顿工作,才干顺利完成胜利转型。

    2、转型的途径

    (1)有序退出低效产业。大型国有煤炭企业对局部的确扭亏无望的矿井,以及消费力和经济效益低下的传统多经产业,能够采取关闭破产、拍卖出卖、对外租赁兼并等方式,选择性地退出。

    (2)开展支柱产业。产业转型意味着资源干涸型国有煤炭企业逐渐脱离矿产资源采掘与加工,开展继续产业和替代产业。无论是在原有产业的根底上向前或向后延伸,开展继续产业,还是开展与原有产业没有直接关联的替代产业。要胜利转型,坚持企业中心竞争力,就必需经过开展一批新项目,着力培育企业非煤支柱产业,构建新非煤产业格局。

    (3)提升传统非煤产业。国有煤炭企业在其开展过程中,或多或少构成了一些与煤有关的多种运营产业,这些产业有过严重作用。企业转型中,一定要同时辩证地处置好开展新项目与改造传统非煤老厂的关系。依据企业的本身实践状况和市场前景,该退的退出,能够做强做大的,则应对其停止改造,加强其竞争力和开展潜力。

    (4)稳定煤炭根底产业。产业转型是一种“突变式”的,要使其不在短时间内产生大量的失业人员,引发社会不稳定,依然要发挥其现有煤炭资源的重要支撑作用,坚持煤炭在本企业的根底产业位置,努力稳定煤炭消费。这既可确保企业的持续开展,也有助于企业的平稳退出和转型。

    (5)加快体制机制创新。大型国有煤炭企业一个主要问题是原有的国有体制僵化落后,新的产业开展上去了,体制机制的创新也要跟上去,这是确保胜利转型的关键。对现有国有煤炭企业来说,要加快改制重组:一是机制创新,也就是“非行政化”,实行政企别离、主辅别离,二是体制创新,也就是“非国有化”,加快产权和用工制度变革,转变一切制方式。

    煤炭行业的生存和开展与渣浆泵行业息息相关,关注煤炭开展前景改动,更新渣浆泵生存理念。


    The coal industry is an important market in the slurry pump application industry. However, with the implementation of the National de capacity and inventory elimination policy, the survival pressure of coal enterprises is increasing day by day. Today, we will talk about the survival and development of the coal industry closely related to the slurry pump industry.
    Coal is a non renewable resource. Coal enterprises are typical non renewable resource-based enterprises. How to survive and develop after their resources are exhausted? This is an issue of general concern and a worldwide problem. China's large coal enterprises also have different characteristics from ordinary enterprises. Most of them are state-owned enterprises established in the era of planned economy. With the in-depth development of market economy reform, we should complete the transformation from planned economy to market economy. Therefore, the transformation of enterprises faces the dual difficulties of industrial transformation and system transformation. It is of great practical significance to study the transformation of large state-owned coal enterprises facing resource depletion.
    1、 Difficulties and problems in the transformation of large state-owned coal enterprises
    As large state-owned coal enterprises are facing the dual pressure of resource crisis and state-owned enterprise reform at the same time, there must be many difficulties and problems in their transformation path, and their transformation must be a very arduous and tortuous process.
    Most large state-owned coal enterprises have a long mining time and heavy historical burden. One feature is that there are many retirees, and there are also a large number of pensioners such as industrial injury, work disability, occupational disease patients and family members of employees who died at work. The social burden of enterprises is very heavy.
    Most of the large state-owned coal enterprises were established in the early planned economy era, with a long-term planned economy background. The trace of the planned economy is deep, and they have been used to the operation mechanism and management system of state-owned enterprises for a long time. The concept of employees is relatively backward, the transformation of ideas is slow, and the adaptability of reform is not strong.
    2、 Contents and ways of transformation of large state-owned coal enterprises
    1. Content of transformation
    (1) Industrial transformation. Generally speaking, the transformation of industrial structure includes two ways: one is to drive related industries through the development of pillar industries, extend the industrial chain vertically and develop continuous industries; The other is to jump out of the scope of the original industry and find another way to choose alternative industries horizontally. Enterprises should choose the way of transformation according to the degree of dependence on the original resource industry and the speed of depletion. The first method is generally selected because of high dependence and slow depletion speed; Select the latter method, otherwise. You can also choose two options at the same time, but you should focus on them and advance them in an orderly manner.
    (2) Institutional transformation. Establishing a modern enterprise system with "clear property rights, clear rights and responsibilities, separation of government and enterprises and scientific management" is not only the inevitable choice of state-owned enterprise reform, but also the inevitable choice of resource-based enterprise restructuring. The transformation in the sense of ownership is an enterprise reform focusing on the property right system and employment system. We will promote the reform of the property rights system and comprehensively transform the operating mechanism by relying on the joint strength of the general assembly, technical cooperation, bankruptcy and merger, asset reorganization, and even boldly introducing private capital and private mechanisms. It is an effective way for the transformation of state-owned coal enterprises to combine the restructuring with the industrial strategic development planning of enterprises, take the capital reorganization and revitalizing the stock as the breakthrough, withdraw orderly from non pillar industries, and gradually concentrate state-owned capital on pillar industries.
    (3) Management system innovation. Superior management system is the fundamental premise for the rationalization and effectiveness of enterprise organizational activities. For resource-based enterprises, in order to take the road of normalization, modernization and sustainable development, we must strengthen the innovation of internal management system. Enterprise reform and strengthening management are two indispensable wheels. The achievements of enterprise industrial development and reform must be consolidated by management innovation. The core content of management innovation is to create a comprehensive scientific and systematic management system for human resources, production cost, product quality, finance, technology, product marketing and safety production, so as to maximize the benefits of internal resource allocation.
    (4) Employee resettlement. Employee resettlement is the primary problem currently encountered by most large state-owned coal enterprises. The longer the history, the larger the scale, and the greater the difficulties. Especially in the period of enterprise transformation, it is inevitable that a large number of employees need to be transferred, shunted, resettled, or even laid off. Therefore, it is difficult for enterprises to carry out reform and restructuring regardless of industrial structure adjustment. It must be carried out steadily, and a benign employee employment mechanism must be established at the same time, Only by doing a good job in the resettlement of employees can we successfully realize the successful transformation.
    2. Ways of transformation
    (1) Orderly exit from inefficient industries. Large state-owned coal enterprises can selectively withdraw from some mines that are really hopeless to turn around their losses, as well as traditional multi-economic industries with low productivity and economic benefits by closing and bankruptcy, auction and sale, external leasing and merger.
    (2) Develop pillar industries. Industrial transformation means that resource exhausted state-owned coal enterprises are gradually separated from the mining and processing of mineral resources and develop continuous and alternative industries. Whether it is to extend forward or backward on the basis of the original industry, develop the continuous industry, or develop the alternative industry that is not directly related to the original industry. To successfully transform and maintain the core competitiveness of enterprises, we must develop a number of new projects, strive to cultivate non coal pillar industries and build a new pattern of non coal industries.
    (3) Improve the traditional non coal industry. In the process of its development, state-owned coal enterprises have more or less formed some diversified industries related to coal, which have played an important role. In the process of enterprise transformation, we must dialectically deal with the relationship between the development of new projects and the transformation of traditional non coal old plants at the same time. According to the actual situation and market prospect of the enterprise, if the withdrawal can be stronger and bigger, it should be transformed to enhance its competitiveness and development potential.
    (4) Stabilize the basic coal industry. Industrial transformation is a kind of "gradual change". In order to prevent it from producing a large number of unemployed people in a short time and causing social instability, it is still necessary to give play to the important supporting role of its existing coal resources, adhere to the basic industrial status of coal in the enterprise, and strive to stabilize coal production. This can not only ensure the sustainable development of the enterprise, but also contribute to the smooth exit and transformation of the enterprise.
    (5) We will accelerate institutional and institutional innovation. A major problem of large state-owned coal enterprises is that the original state-owned system is rigid and backward, new industries have developed, and the innovation of system and mechanism should also keep up, which is the key to ensure the successful transformation. For the existing state-owned coal enterprises, we should speed up the restructuring and reorganization: first, mechanism innovation, that is, "non administration", the separation of government and enterprises and the separation of main and auxiliary; second, system innovation, that is, "non nationalization", speed up the reform of property rights and employment system and change the form of ownership.
    The survival and development of the coal industry is closely related to the slurry pump industry. Pay attention to the change of coal development prospect and update the survival concept of slurry pump.



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